Dr. Alpana Singh, Dr. Nusrat Jahan, Dr. Gita Radhakrishnan, Dr. B D Banerjee


Objectives: To compare the levels of sperm DNA damage, apoptosis and oxidative stress parameters between infertile men and fertile controls.
Main Outcome Measure(s): Assessment of sperm DNA damage in infertile men and fertile controls by Ladder assay, apoptosis by Caspase-3 and
seminal plasma antioxidant Glutathione (GSH) levels and lipid & protein oxidative stress parameters by MDA (Malondialdehyde), protein
carbonyl (PC) respectively in both the groups.
Result(s): significant difference in the count, motility, abnormal morphology and WBC count was observed between cases and controls.
Characteristic smear depicting DNA damage was observed 26samples (n=40) in the study group and 15 samples (n=40) in the control group and
this difference was found to be statistically significant (p-0.021).Caspase-3 activity assessing apoptosis was 1.3 folds higher in the study group as
compared to controls and this difference of OD in both cases and controls were statistically (p = 0.001) highly significant. Similarly, the level of
oxidative stress parameters MDA & PC were significantly higher in the study group as compared to controls whereas antioxidant capacity as
denoted by GSH was significantly (p = 0.001) lower in study group.
Conclusion(s): This study indicate that DNA damage as assessed by both quantitative (Caspase-3) and qualitative (ladder) test were significantly
higher in infertile men as compare to fertile control. The levels of oxidants (MDA & PC) were also significantly higher and antioxidants capacity
(GSH) was significantly lower in the infertile group. Therefore, the assessment of sperm DNA damage, Apoptosis and OS may be helpful to
evaluate the cause of idiopathic male infertility and for the treatment.


Oxidative stress (OS), Malondialdehyde (MDA), Caspase -3, Ladder assay, protein carbonyl

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