Dr Vasudha Sharma, Dr Anupam Sharma


AIM: The aim of the present in vitro study was to analyze the hydroxyl ion as well as the calcium ion diffusion from Calcium Hydroxide pastes after ultrasonic activation, in simulated external root resorption

MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY : For this in vitro study,  single rooted sound human maxillary anteriors and premolars  were used . To simulate external root resorption, cavities (1.4mmin diameter and 0.7 mm in depth) on the buccal surface of the roots were create The samples prepared were then divided into 3 groups according to the vehicle used .In GROUP 1 the vehicle was an aqueous vehicle-distilled water. In GROUP 2, the vehicle was a viscous vehicle – Propylene glycol. .In GROUP 3, vehicle was 2% chlorhexidene.. The root canals were filled with the paste using the Lentulo Spiral, at the standard working length of 14mm. The specimen were  evaluated  for PH and calcium ion after 24 hours, 7, 14, and 28 days .


RESULT: The results showed that all the experimental groups showed diffusion of hydroxyl and calcium ions. The pH of all these preparations was observed to be higher. The ion diffusion in all three groups was improved significantly when ultrasonic activation was used to agitate the medicament. The choice of vehicle seems to affect the efficacy of medicaments.


CONCLUSION : The present study concluded that the choice of vehicle seems to affect the efficacy of medicaments. The agitation of medicament with ultrasonic apparatus significantly improves the ion diffusion rendering it more effective.


calcium hydroxide root resorption ultrasonic activation

Full Text:



Andreasen JO. Relationship between surface and inflammatory resorption and changes in the pulp after replantation of permanent incisors in monkeys. J Endod 1981;7:294–301.

SandeepPimpale et al., External root Resorption – Diagnosis & Management. A Case SeriesInternational Journal of Recent Scientific Research Vol. 6, Issue, 8, pp.5792-5795, August, 2015.

Ne RF, Witherspoon DE,:Tooth resorption. Quintessence Int. 1999;30(1):9–25. [PubMed]

Patel S, Kanagasingam S, Pitt Ford T : External cervical resorption: A review. J Endod. 2009;35:616–25. [PubMed]

TronstadL : Root resorption -etiology, terminology and clinical manifestations. Endod Dent Traumatol 1988;4: 241-52.

Benenati FW. Root resorption: Types and treatment. Gen Dent. 1997;45(1):42–5.

Friedman S, Rotstein I, Libfeld H, Stabbola A, Heling I: Incidence of external root resorption and esthetic results in 58 bleached pulpless teeth. Endod Dent Traumatol 1988;4(1):23-6.

Fava LR Saunders WP. Review Calcium hydroxide pastes: classification and clinical indications. International Endodontic Journal 1999;32(4):257-282.

K.rehman,: Calcium ion diffusion from calcium hydroxide-containing materials in endodontically-treated teeth: An in vitro study ,JOE 1996

A review of calcium hydroxide P. C. FOREMAN I. E. BARNES November 1990

Calcium hydroxide in the treatment of external root resorption :YousefSaad,(1988)

Plotinno G, Pameijer CH, Grande NM, Somma F. Ultrasonics in endodontics: a review of the literature. J Endod 2007;33:81–95.

Stock CJR. Current status of the use of ultrasound in endodontics.Int Dent J1991;41:175– 82.

George GK, Rajkumar K, Sanjeev K, Mahalaxmi S. Calcium ion diffusion levels from MTA and apexcal in simulated external root resorption at middle third of the root. Dent Traumatol 2009;25:480–3.

Pacios MG, de La Casa ML de, Bulacio M de los A, Lopez ME. Influence of different vehicles on the pH of calcium hydroxide pastes. J Oral Sci 2004;46:107–

Z.Mohammadi and P V Abott : The properties andapplication of chlorhexidine in endodontics. IntEndod J2009;42:288-302.

Cruz EV, Kota K, Huque J, Iwaku M, Hoshino E. Penetration of propylene glycol into dentine. IntEndod J 2002;35:330–6.

Hosoya N1, Takahashi G, Arai T, Nakamura JCalcium concentration and pH of the periapical environment after applying calcium hydroxide into root canals in vitro J Endod. 2001 May;27(5):343-6.

Esberard RM, Carnes DL, del Rio CE. Changes in pH at the dentin surface in roots obturated with calcium hydroxide pastes. J Endod 1996;22:402–5.


  • There are currently no refbacks.