Delia Colombo, Emanuela Zagni, Stefano Savonitto, Mihaela Nica


Background. The real-world evidence of Italian outpatients with heart failure (HF) has been explored using the ARNO database, including more than 40,000 patients.

Methods. This retrospective analysis of the ARNO HF patients explored gender differences in the clinical and therapeutic characteristics, one-year outcomes and health expenditure.

Results. Women were 51.4% of the sample, on average older than men and had developed the disease later in life. Males had significantly higher rates of prior hospital admissions for acute coronary syndrome and higher prescriptions of CV medications. Women suffered more frequently from depression but less from diabetes and COPD. Women showed significantly better 1-year outcome in terms of re-hospitalizations, both for CV and non-CV causes, but not lower mortality. Health costs were lower for women, being hospitalizations the major driver of costs in HF.

Conclusion. This analysis revealed gender differences in HF patients, suggesting the need for more gender-specific studies to develop gender-driven management approaches.


Heart failure, gender differences, real-world database.

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