Veena Vijayan, Suguna Yesodharan, E. P. Yesodharan


Indigo carmine (IC), widely used in textile industry, food colorings, medical diagnostics etc. is a major dye pollutant of water. Ultrasonic (US) degradation of IC in water under different conditions is investigated. The effect of US frequency (200, 350 , 620  and 1000 kHz) and power (20, 40, 60 and 80W) on the degradation profile is evaluated. Optimum degradation is obtained at 350 kHz and 80W in the acidic medium. Combination with Fe2+, H2O2, peroxydisulphate and ZnO enhances the sonodegradation efficiency significantly. The influence of salts/ anions likely to be present in water on the sonolytic degradation varies from inhibition to ‘no effect’. Major   intermediates formed during the degradation of the dye are identified using LC/MS technique.  Eventually the degradation leads to complete mineralization as confirmed by the absence of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Optimum parameters for the mineralization are identified experimentally and appropriate reaction mechanisms are proposed.



Sonolysis; Indigo Carmine, Mineralization; Water purification

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