Dr Shiv P Mittal, Dr Kiranjeet Kaur


INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D and calcium determines the bone health. Peak bone formation in young age is found
beneficial in preventing osteoporosis and fractures at later age. Our study is to evaluate correlation between Vitamin D
(VD) and bone health in students and likely future risk for diseases at later age because of VD deficiency.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: Students [N=148: Male=67 & female=81] participated in the study. After clinical evaluation, relevant
biochemical tests, including serum VD estimation, done and bone mass density (BMD) measured.
RESULTS: Mean age of male and female students was 19.56 ± 1 & 19.52 ± 1 year respectively. Students [(N=139 (93.92%): Male (M)=62
(41.89%) & Female (F)=77 (52.03%)] had low VD levels. Students M=64 (43.24% & F=75 (50.68%)] had normal BMD and 9 students (M=4 &
F=5) osteopenia. Many students of either sex with normal or near normal BMD presented on either side of BMD “T score -1”. We call them
“Fence Sitter” because their future improvement or deterioration bone health depends on the lifestyle as they age. Students performing mild
physical activities, fast food indulgence or with high blood pressure had significant VD deficiency, and in this subgroup many had normal BMD,
but were “Fence Sitters”. Sufficient proportion of students of either sex with family history of (F/H/O) chronic metabolic diseases, with Body
Mass Index (BMI) of any grade, irrespective of waist circumference and Waist hip ratio (WHR) were also “Fence Sitters” despite normal BMD.
CONCLUSION: VD deficiency, in the participants, not only likely to impact bone health, but may make them vulnerable to various nonskeletal
diseases. We view skeptically the normal BMD in most of students, as multiple factors contribute to VD deficiency and bone health
among them. Secondly, as they age, environmental factors and life style in face of VD deficiency may impact their bone health and non-skeletal
functions. “Fence Sitters” may likely to face this impact most.


Vitamin D, BMD, Fence Sitters

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