Noorul Rizwana. A, Vivek Shankar. P, Arun kumar. CS, Suganya Srinivasan, Murugesan Krishnan, Peter John, Brintha Jei


Aim: To fabricate a dynamic hand prosthesis using simple sensomotors and programming it using electromyographic synchronization to achieve functional movements at minimal cost.
Materials and methods: The primary design of the prosthesis was done digitally and it was simulated using 3-D printing and milled with light weight polyurethane material. For incorporating the dynamic movements into the prosthesis, motors and electromotors (flex sensomotors) which worked based on the hex code programming were used. These additives allowed free movements and functional movements in the prosthesis. Using electromyography (EMG) healthier neuromuscular coordination was synchronized from a volunteer to the prosthesis. Electromyography worked based on the recording of muscle amplitude in microamperes with two sensors. One sensor transmitted the actual amplitude levels of healthier muscular movements while the other sensor intensified or deranged the value based on the muscle threshold of the individual. The amplitude values were recorded in C code programming format, which is human interfacing language. This was then compiled into the assembly programming for the ease of evaluation.

Results: Based on the design, functional and dynamic movements were obtained in the hand prosthesis, using the synchronized EMG signals, which improved the efficiency of rehabilitation.

Conclusion: Functionally active hand prosthesis at minimal cost will pave way for rehabilitating patients and improving their quality of life.


Dynamic prosthesis, sensomotors, electromyography, hex code programming.

Full Text:



Saikia A, Mazumdar S, Sahai N, Paul S, Bhatia D, Verma S, Rohilla PK. Recent

advancements in prosthetic hand technology. J Med Eng Technol. 2016


O’Toole KT, McGrath MM. Mechanical design and theoretical analysis of a four fingered prosthetic hand incorporating embedded SMA bundle actuators. Int J Med Health Pharmaceut Biomed Eng. 2007;1:7.

Kasim AA, Aqilah A, Jaffar A, et al. Development ofUiTM robotic prosthetic hand. In: Proceedings ofWorld Academy of Science, Engineering andTechnology. No. 73. World Academy ofScience, Engineering and Technology (WASET).p. 1054.

Zhang T, Fan S, Zhao J, et al. Design and control of amultisensory five-finger prosthetic hand. IntelligentControl and Automation (WCICA), 2014 11th WorldCongress, Shenyang, China, pp. 3327–3332.

Takeda H, Tsujiuchi N, Koizumi T, Kan H, Hirano M,Nakamura Y. Development of prosthetic arm with pneumaticprosthetic hand and tendon-driven wrist. Conf Proc IEEE EngMed Biol Soc 2009;2009:5048e51.

Kuiken TA, Dumanian GA, Lipschutz RD, Miller LA,Stubblefield KA. The use of targeted muscle reinnervation forimproved myoelectric prosthesis control in a bilateralshoulder disarticulation amputee. ProsthetOrthot Int 2004;28:245e53.

Weir R, Mitchell M, Clark S, Puchhammer G, Kelley K,Haslinger M, et al. Newmultifunctional prosthetic arm andhand systems. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc2007;2007:4359e60.

Carrozza MC, Massa B, Dario P, Zecca M, Micera S,Pastacaldi P. A two DoF finger for a biomechatronic artificialhand. Technol Health Care 2002;10:77e89.

Folgheraiter M, Gini G. Human-like reflex control for anartificial hand. Biosystems 2004;76:65e74.

Edin BB, Ascari L, Beccai L, Roccella S, Cabibihan JJ,Carrozza MC. Bio-inspired sensorization of a biomechatronicrobot hand for the grasp-and-lift task. Brain Res Bull 2008;75:785e95.


  • There are currently no refbacks.